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数字图像与机器视觉基础

一、用图画板或其他图像编辑软件(Photoshop)打开一个彩色图像文件,将其分别保存为 32位、16位彩色和256色、16色、单色的位图(BMP)文件,对比其文件大小

右击一张图片的属性,查看它的详细信息,现在可以看到它的位深度为24
在这里插入图片描述
接着我们用电脑自带的画图软件将其保存为不同位图(BMP)文件
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述

此时分别右击点开属性查看他们的大小以及位深度
此时点开16色的
在这里插入图片描述
位深度为4,大小600k
计算:96012804/8/1024=614400bite,是这么多个字节
用ultraEdit打开该图片
这些都是它的头文件信息
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述
位图文件头像这样划分为4部分,共有14字节,从这后面开始
2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 4依次划分共40个字节出来,这就是位图信息头

二.用奇异只分解对图片进行降维处理

打开Anaconda中的Spyder

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Spyder Editor

This is a temporary script file.
"""
import numpy as np
import os
from PIL import Image
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import matplotlib as mpl
from pprint import pprint


def restore1(sigma, u, v, K):  # 奇异值、左特征向量、右特征向量
    m = len(u)
    n = len(v[0])
    a = np.zeros((m, n))
    for k in range(K):
        uk = u[:, k].reshape(m, 1)
        vk = v[k].reshape(1, n)
        a += sigma[k] * np.dot(uk, vk)
    a[a < 0] = 0
    a[a > 255] = 255
    # a = a.clip(0, 255)
    return np.rint(a).astype('uint8')


def restore2(sigma, u, v, K):  # 奇异值、左特征向量、右特征向量
    m = len(u)
    n = len(v[0])
    a = np.zeros((m, n))
    for k in range(K+1):
        for i in range(m):
            a[i] += sigma[k] * u[i][k] * v[k]
    a[a < 0] = 0
    a[a > 255] = 255
    return np.rint(a).astype('uint8')


if __name__ == "__main__":
    A = Image.open("D:\\MyApplication\\app\\src\\main\\res\\mipmap-xxxhdpi\\aaa.jpg" ,'r')
    print(A)
    output_path =r'D:\\MyApplication\\app\\src\\main\\res\\mipmap-xxxhdpi\\SVD_Output'
    if not os.path.exists(output_path):
        os.mkdir(output_path)
    a = np.array(A)
    print(a.shape)
    K = 50
    u_r, sigma_r, v_r = np.linalg.svd(a[:, :, 0])
    u_g, sigma_g, v_g = np.linalg.svd(a[:, :, 1])
    u_b, sigma_b, v_b = np.linalg.svd(a[:, :, 2])
    plt.figure(figsize=(11, 9), facecolor='w')
    mpl.rcParams['font.sans-serif'] = ['simHei']
    mpl.rcParams['axes.unicode_minus'] = False
    for k in range(1, K+1):
        print(k)
        R = restore1(sigma_r, u_r, v_r, k)
        G = restore1(sigma_g, u_g, v_g, k)
        B = restore1(sigma_b, u_b, v_b, k)
        I = np.stack((R, G, B), axis=2)
        Image.fromarray(I).save('%s\\svd_%d.png' % (output_path, k))
        if k <= 12:
            plt.subplot(3, 4, k)
            plt.imshow(I)
            plt.axis('off')
            plt.title('奇异值个数:%d' % k)
    plt.suptitle('SVD与图像分解', fontsize=20)
    plt.tight_layout()
    # plt.subplots_adjust(top=0.9)
    plt.show()

打开生成的文件,查看这些图片
在这里插入图片描述
当奇异值越少,图片越模糊。

三、采用图像的开闭运算,检测出2个样本图像中硬币、细胞的个数

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Spyder Editor

This is a temporary script file.
"""
import cv2
import numpy as np

def stackImages(scale, imgArray):
    """
        将多张图像压入同一个窗口显示
        :param scale:float类型,输出图像显示百分比,控制缩放比例,0.5=图像分辨率缩小一半
        :param imgArray:元组嵌套列表,需要排列的图像矩阵
        :return:输出图像
    """
    rows = len(imgArray)
    cols = len(imgArray[0])
    rowsAvailable = isinstance(imgArray[0], list)
    width = imgArray[0][0].shape[1]
    height = imgArray[0][0].shape[0]
    if rowsAvailable:
        for x in range(0, rows):
            for y in range(0, cols):
                if imgArray[x][y].shape[:2] == imgArray[0][0].shape[:2]:
                    imgArray[x][y] = cv2.resize(imgArray[x][y], (0, 0), None, scale, scale)
                else:
                    imgArray[x][y] = cv2.resize(imgArray[x][y], (imgArray[0][0].shape[1], imgArray[0][0].shape[0]),
                                                None, scale, scale)
                if len(imgArray[x][y].shape) == 2: imgArray[x][y] = cv2.cvtColor(imgArray[x][y], cv2.COLOR_GRAY2BGR)
        imageBlank = np.zeros((height, width, 3), np.uint8)
        hor = [imageBlank] * rows
        hor_con = [imageBlank] * rows
        for x in range(0, rows):
            hor[x] = np.hstack(imgArray[x])
        ver = np.vstack(hor)
    else:
        for x in range(0, rows):
            if imgArray[x].shape[:2] == imgArray[0].shape[:2]:
                imgArray[x] = cv2.resize(imgArray[x], (0, 0), None, scale, scale)
            else:
                imgArray[x] = cv2.resize(imgArray[x], (imgArray[0].shape[1], imgArray[0].shape[0]), None, scale, scale)
            if len(imgArray[x].shape) == 2: imgArray[x] = cv2.cvtColor(imgArray[x], cv2.COLOR_GRAY2BGR)
        hor = np.hstack(imgArray)
        ver = hor
    return ver


#读取图片
src = cv2.imread("D:/Program Files (x86)/a1.png")
img = src.copy()

#灰度
img_1 = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)

#二值化
ret, img_2 = cv2.threshold(img_1, 127, 255, cv2.THRESH_BINARY_INV + cv2.THRESH_OTSU)

#腐蚀
kernel = np.ones((20, 20), int)
img_3 = cv2.erode(img_2, kernel, iterations=1)

#膨胀
kernel = np.ones((3, 3), int)
img_4 = cv2.dilate(img_3, kernel, iterations=1)

#找到硬币中心
contours, hierarchy = cv2.findContours(img_4, cv2.RETR_EXTERNAL, cv2.CHAIN_APPROX_NONE)[-2:]

#标识硬币
cv2.drawContours(img, contours, -1, (0, 0, 255), 5)

#显示图片
cv2.putText(img, "count:{}".format(len(contours)), (0, 30), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (255, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(src, "src", (0, 30), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (255, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_1, "gray", (0, 30), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (255, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_2, "thresh", (0, 30), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (255, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_3, "erode", (0, 30), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (255, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_4, "dilate", (0, 30), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (255, 0, 0), 3)
imgStack = stackImages(1, ([src, img_1, img_2], [img_3, img_4, img]))
cv2.imshow("imgStack", imgStack)
cv2.waitKey(0)


在这里插入图片描述
修改图片,D:/Program Files (x86)/a1.png–>a2.png,换张细胞图
绘制图片时,修改一下字体颜色,否则字体颜色和背景一致无法辨别。

cv2.putText(img_2, "thresh", (0, 30), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (0, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_3, "erode", (0, 30), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (0, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_4, "dilate", (0, 30), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (0, 0, 0), 3)

在这里插入图片描述

四、采用图像梯度、开闭、轮廓运算等,对图片中的条形码进行定位提取;再调用条码库获得条码字符

先在cmd里输入下面两个命令下载包

pip install imutils

pip install pyzbar

import cv2
import numpy as np
import imutils
from pyzbar import pyzbar
def stackImages(scale, imgArray):
    """
        将多张图像压入同一个窗口显示
        :param scale:float类型,输出图像显示百分比,控制缩放比例,0.5=图像分辨率缩小一半
        :param imgArray:元组嵌套列表,需要排列的图像矩阵
        :return:输出图像
    """
    rows = len(imgArray)
    cols = len(imgArray[0])
    rowsAvailable = isinstance(imgArray[0], list)
    width = imgArray[0][0].shape[1]
    height = imgArray[0][0].shape[0]
    if rowsAvailable:
        for x in range(0, rows):
            for y in range(0, cols):
                if imgArray[x][y].shape[:2] == imgArray[0][0].shape[:2]:
                    imgArray[x][y] = cv2.resize(imgArray[x][y], (0, 0), None, scale, scale)
                else:
                    imgArray[x][y] = cv2.resize(imgArray[x][y], (imgArray[0][0].shape[1], imgArray[0][0].shape[0]),
                                                None, scale, scale)
                if len(imgArray[x][y].shape) == 2: imgArray[x][y] = cv2.cvtColor(imgArray[x][y], cv2.COLOR_GRAY2BGR)
        imageBlank = np.zeros((height, width, 3), np.uint8)
        hor = [imageBlank] * rows
        hor_con = [imageBlank] * rows
        for x in range(0, rows):
            hor[x] = np.hstack(imgArray[x])
        ver = np.vstack(hor)
    else:
        for x in range(0, rows):
            if imgArray[x].shape[:2] == imgArray[0].shape[:2]:
                imgArray[x] = cv2.resize(imgArray[x], (0, 0), None, scale, scale)
            else:
                imgArray[x] = cv2.resize(imgArray[x], (imgArray[0].shape[1], imgArray[0].shape[0]), None, scale, scale)
            if len(imgArray[x].shape) == 2: imgArray[x] = cv2.cvtColor(imgArray[x], cv2.COLOR_GRAY2BGR)
        hor = np.hstack(imgArray)
        ver = hor
    return ver


#读取图片
src = cv2.imread("txm.jpg")
img = src.copy()

#灰度
img_1 = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)

#高斯滤波
img_2 = cv2.GaussianBlur(img_1, (5, 5), 1)


#Sobel算子
sobel_x = cv2.Sobel(img_2, cv2.CV_64F, 1, 0, ksize=3)
sobel_y = cv2.Sobel(img_2, cv2.CV_64F, 0, 1, ksize=3)
sobel_x = cv2.convertScaleAbs(sobel_x)
sobel_y = cv2.convertScaleAbs(sobel_y)
img_3 = cv2.addWeighted(sobel_x, 0.5, sobel_y, 0.5, 0)

#均值方波
img_4 = cv2.blur(img_3, (5, 5))

#二值化
ret, img_5 = cv2.threshold(img_4, 127, 255, cv2.THRESH_BINARY + cv2.THRESH_OTSU)

#闭运算
kernel = np.ones((100, 100), int)
img_6 = cv2.morphologyEx(img_5, cv2.MORPH_CLOSE, kernel)

#开运算
kernel = np.ones((200, 200), int)
img_7 = cv2.morphologyEx(img_6, cv2.MORPH_OPEN, kernel)

#绘制条形码区域
contours = cv2.findContours(img_7, cv2.RETR_EXTERNAL, cv2.CHAIN_APPROX_SIMPLE)
contours = imutils.grab_contours(contours)
c = sorted(contours, key = cv2.contourArea, reverse = True)[0]
rect = cv2.minAreaRect(c)
box = cv2.cv.BoxPoints(rect) if imutils.is_cv2() else cv2.boxPoints(rect)
box = np.int0(box)
cv2.drawContours(img, [box], -1, (0,255,0), 20)

#显示图片信息
cv2.putText(img, "results", (200, 200), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (255, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_1, "gray", (200, 200), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (0, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_2, "GaussianBlur",(200, 200), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (0, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_3, "Sobel", (200, 200), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (255, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_4, "blur", (200, 200), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (255, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_5, "threshold", (200, 200), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (255, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_6, "close", (200, 200), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (0, 0, 0), 3)
cv2.putText(img_7, "open", (200, 200), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1.0, (0, 0, 0), 3)

#输出条形码
barcodes = pyzbar.decode(src)
for barcode in barcodes:
    barcodeData = barcode.data.decode("utf-8")
    cv2.putText(img, barcodeData, (200, 600), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 5.0, (0, 255, 0), 30)

#显示所有图片
imgStack = stackImages(0.8, ([img_1, img_2],[img_3,img_4],[img_5,img_6],[img_7,img]))
cv2.imshow("imgStack", imgStack)
cv2.waitKey(0)

在这里插入图片描述


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