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C++标准类string的用法

因为之前在准备机考,数据结构算法题都是拿C++来刷。以前学C++的时候还没怎么深入了解过string类和其他C++ STL中的一些常见用法,上手之后发现真香,尤其在刷题的时候能省下不少麻烦事。现在从标准文档里来搬运一下string类的用法。
来源:http://www.cplusplus.com/reference/

  1. 首先是构造的方法:
// string constructor
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

int main ()
{
  std::string s0 ("Initial string");

  // constructors used in the same order as described above:
  std::string s1;
  std::string s2 (s0);
  std::string s3 (s0, 8, 3);
  std::string s4 ("A character sequence");
  std::string s5 ("Another character sequence", 12);
  std::string s6a (10, 'x');
  std::string s6b (10, 42);      // 42 is the ASCII code for '*'
  std::string s7 (s0.begin(), s0.begin()+7);

  std::cout << "s1: " << s1 << "\ns2: " << s2 << "\ns3: " << s3;
  std::cout << "\ns4: " << s4 << "\ns5: " << s5 << "\ns6a: " << s6a;
  std::cout << "\ns6b: " << s6b << "\ns7: " << s7 << '\n';
  return 0;
}

output:
s1: 
s2: Initial string
s3: str
s4: A character sequence
s5: Another char
s6a: xxxxxxxxxx
s6b: **********
s7: Initial
  1. 各种迭代器

begin(), end()
rbegin(), rend() // 正好与begin(), end() 顺序相反,也就是反着迭代

  1. 计算容量相关

size() 和 length() 都可计算string的长度
max_size() string可以达到的最大容量
capacity() 内存为字符串分配的空间

// comparing size, length, capacity and max_size
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

int main ()
{
  std::string str ("Test string");
  std::cout << "size: " << str.size() << "\n";
  std::cout << "length: " << str.length() << "\n";
  std::cout << "capacity: " << str.capacity() << "\n";
  std::cout << "max_size: " << str.max_size() << "\n";
  return 0;
}

output:
size: 11
length: 11
capacity: 15
max_size: 429496729

resize() 可以改变字符串的长度,多出的部分可以填充(挺实用的)

// resizing string
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

int main ()
{
  std::string str ("I like to code in C");
  std::cout << str << '\n';

  unsigned sz = str.size();

  str.resize (sz+2,'+');
  std::cout << str << '\n';

  str.resize (14);
  std::cout << str << '\n';
  return 0;
}

output:
I like to code in C
I like to code in C++
I like to code

clear() 清空字符串,相似的用法有erase(),可以清空特定位置的字符
empty() 字符串是否为空

// string::erase
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

int main ()
{
  std::string str ("This is an example sentence.");
  std::cout << str << '\n';
                                           // "This is an example sentence."
  str.erase (10,8);                        //            ^^^^^^^^
  std::cout << str << '\n';
                                           // "This is an sentence."
  str.erase (str.begin()+9);               //           ^
  std::cout << str << '\n';
                                           // "This is a sentence."
  str.erase (str.begin()+5, str.end()-9);  //       ^^^^^
  std::cout << str << '\n';
                                           // "This sentence."
  return 0;
}
  1. 获取特定位置的字符

str[i]
str.at(i)
str.front() 第一个字符
str.back() 最后一个字符

  1. 修改字符串

+= 操作
append()
push_back()
pop_back()
assign() 赋值
insert() 插入
swap() 交换 // str1.swap(str2) , str1与str2的内容被调换
replace() 替换

// string::assign
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

int main ()
{
  std::string str;
  std::string base="The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog.";

  // used in the same order as described above:

  str.assign(base);
  std::cout << str << '\n';

  str.assign(base,10,9);
  std::cout << str << '\n';         // "brown fox"

  str.assign("pangrams are cool",7);
  std::cout << str << '\n';         // "pangram"

  str.assign("c-string");
  std::cout << str << '\n';         // "c-string"

  str.assign(10,'*');
  std::cout << str << '\n';         // "**********"

  str.assign<int>(10,0x2D);
  std::cout << str << '\n';         // "----------"

  str.assign(base.begin()+16,base.end()-12);
  std::cout << str << '\n';         // "fox jumps over"

  return 0;
}
// inserting into a string
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

int main ()
{
  std::string str="to be question";
  std::string str2="the ";
  std::string str3="or not to be";
  std::string::iterator it;

  // used in the same order as described above:
  str.insert(6,str2);                 // to be (the )question
  str.insert(6,str3,3,4);             // to be (not )the question
  str.insert(10,"that is cool",8);    // to be not (that is )the question
  str.insert(10,"to be ");            // to be not (to be )that is the question
  str.insert(15,1,':');               // to be not to be(:) that is the question
  it = str.insert(str.begin()+5,','); // to be(,) not to be: that is the question
  str.insert (str.end(),3,'.');       // to be, not to be: that is the question(...)
  str.insert (it+2,str3.begin(),str3.begin()+3); // (or )

  std::cout << str << '\n';
  return 0;
}
// replacing in a string
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

int main ()
{
  std::string base="this is a test string.";
  std::string str2="n example";
  std::string str3="sample phrase";
  std::string str4="useful.";

  // replace signatures used in the same order as described above:

  // Using positions:                 0123456789*123456789*12345
  std::string str=base;           // "this is a test string."
  str.replace(9,5,str2);          // "this is an example string." (1)
  str.replace(19,6,str3,7,6);     // "this is an example phrase." (2)
  str.replace(8,10,"just a");     // "this is just a phrase."     (3)
  str.replace(8,6,"a shorty",7);  // "this is a short phrase."    (4)
  str.replace(22,1,3,'!');        // "this is a short phrase!!!"  (5)

  // Using iterators:                                               0123456789*123456789*
  str.replace(str.begin(),str.end()-3,str3);                    // "sample phrase!!!"      (1)
  str.replace(str.begin(),str.begin()+6,"replace");             // "replace phrase!!!"     (3)
  str.replace(str.begin()+8,str.begin()+14,"is coolness",7);    // "replace is cool!!!"    (4)
  str.replace(str.begin()+12,str.end()-4,4,'o');                // "replace is cooool!!!"  (5)
  str.replace(str.begin()+11,str.end(),str4.begin(),str4.end());// "replace is useful."    (6)
  std::cout << str << '\n';
  return 0;
}
  1. 字符串操作

find() 寻找特定字符/字符串,返回下标,若没找到,返回 string::npos
rfind() 返回特定字符/字符串 在目标字符串中最后出现的位置
find_first_of() 寻找特定字符
find_last_of()
substr() 获取子串(切片)
compare() str1.compare(str2) 返回值>0,<0,=0

  1. IO

getline(cin,str) 获取一行字符串


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